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ADHD, LD, EF | What does it all mean?

By Brittany Curran on Sat, Nov 24, 2018 @ 03:48 PM

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Initialisms have long existed as a popular form of communication and classification: FBI, TGIF, DNA, ICYMI. In a world prone to shortened speak, condensed phrasing can be both puzzling and ambiguous. 

ADHD, LD, and EF are three unique initialisms that help categorize learning differences. Although they may have overlapping symptoms, these terms are not interchangeable.

So, how do we begin to decipher which one accurately defines an individual's needs? Let’s dissect!


ADHD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly ADD) is a neurobehavioural disorder affecting brain development and activity, which then alters a child's abilities, like sitting still or following instructions.

Most kids show attention challenges throughout childhood. An individual with ADHD, however, feels an even greater struggle to focus, and will likely display symptoms in three categories: inattention (e.g. distractions and concentration), hyperactivity (e.g. fidgeting and boredom), and impulsivity (e.g. interruptions and risky behaviour).

But struggling with areas such as focus, activity, and self-control doesn't equal an ADHD diagnosis. Instead, consider that the concern level should grow as children do. 

According to KidsHealth, "kids learn these skills with help from parents and teachers. But some kids don't get much better at paying attention, settling down, listening, or waiting. When these things continue and begin to cause problems at school, home, and with friends, it may be ADHD."

Theories surrounding the root of ADHD are complicated: genes, environmental toxins (e.g. pesticides), and prenatal substance abuse are likely contributors. It is important to also note what is not at the core: "the popular belief that eating too much sugar causes the condition has not held up in research... and 'poor parenting' is not to blame... but parenting styles and strategies can have an effect on children's self-regulating abilities. Children who are exposed to inconsistent discipline or who suffer from neglect may find it more challenging to rein in their impulses or direct their attention later on" (Psychology Today Canada).

LD
Learning Disabilities (LD)—including Dyslexia and Dysgraphia—stem from how our brains are pre-programmed and is not an indication of intelligence. The brain may struggle with reading, reasoning, or recall, but challenges can be curbed through tools and techniques. Furthermore, many children with LDs often excel in other areas, like music and sports.

At an early age, children may face challenges learning numbers, interacting with others, and be easily distracted. Once in school, common telltale signs include word confusion, reading and spelling mistakes, and a slowness to comprehend new skills. Nearing junior high, children may battle handwriting, fact recall, and avoid reading in front of others.

"Children with learning disabilities must be assured that they are not dumb or lazy. They are intelligent people who have trouble learning because their minds process words or information differently... it important to be honest and optimistic—explain to your child that they struggle with learning, but that they can learn. Focus on your child's talents and strengths" (LD Online).

EF
Executive function (EF) skills are cognitive—or brain-based—skills that affect one's ability to make plans, set goals, regulate emotions, etc.; the prefrontal cortex governs these skills. EFs are neuro-developmental, meaning they develop over time, but not necessarily in a linear fashion.

EFs commonly fall under one of these three skill groups: Working Memory, Cognitive Flexibility, and Inhibitory Control. Skills need to be nurtured prior to entering an academic setting, and children will feel better equipped for school with some control over managing thoughts, actions, and emotions.

EFs are described as delayed, not deficits, and there are likely to be accelerations and regressions; fluctuation is normal.

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However your child’s learning journey unfolds, a support team for treatment—which can include doctors, therapists, parents, coaches, and teachers—will help him or her slow down, develop and hone skills, and gain confidence. Early awareness is key: check in with a clinician (even get a second or third opinion) and keep your child's team in the loop.

Being organized and informed can also make a world of difference in your child's progress.

Here are 5 tips to help manage information:

  1. STAY SORTED
    Create a binder to house relevant medical and educational documents, test results, forms, etc.
  2. HELP LINE
    Entrust and designate a family member, neighbour, or close friend to be a supportive resource for you and your child; it takes a village!
  3. SAVE SAMPLES
    Collect examples of schoolwork that highlight strengths and weaknesses; these tangible academic reminders will help remind you of successes and hitches.
  4. KEEP TRACK
    Maintain a running log of communication and correspondence with professionals.
  5. TAKE NOTES
    Scribe memos of your child's educational, social, and emotional highs and lows; keep a journal or phone note to have your personal observations on hand.


Halifax Learning can help individuals with an ADHD or LD brain. To learn more about how our program works, contact us for a free consultation. 

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Child's Play: Five Word Games for Kids

By Brittany Curran on Fri, Nov 09, 2018 @ 01:26 PM

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Revered British writer, Roald Dahl (Boy, The BFG, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory), believed that "life is more fun if you play games." He also scribbed a character who thought "children should never have baths... it's a dangerous habit(The Witches). Certainly one of these things is true.

Word activities can be an exciting and engaging supplemental tool for encouraging your child to read. They can also trigger a volcanic eruption of frustration and anger if a child playing lacks the foundational skills required to participate in family or group fun. If a raging river of molten hot lava tends to overtake your kitchen table, expert intervention might be necessary. Contact us today for a free assessment!

If not, here are five board and card gamesfrom classic choices to contemporary conceptsto help reinforce spelling, strengthen word recognition, and fuel your little one's imagination. They might even forget they're learning... and it's sure to bring out the kid in you, too!

1. SCRABBLE JUNIOR

For 80 years, Scrabble has become one of the most popular games to grace shelves. Hasbro's newer offspring, Scrabble Junior, is suggested for ages 5 and up, and offers a dual board. The first side has permanent, predetermined vocabulary (like CHERRY, DOLPHIN, and SEA) and players match personal tiles to these words. An adult can help keep score with tokens, and when a player runs out of tiles, the individual with the most points wins. The second side is an advanced edition, so kids can build up to building their own words!

2. RORY'S STORY CUBES

Nearly 15 years ago, creativity trainer and coach, Rory Bamfylde, needed an innovative problem solving technique for adults; "as the brain thinks in pictures but communicates in words, having a visual aid... would be advantageous." So he created Story Cubes: a dice game to help nurture different ideas. To play, individuals take turns shaking up and rolling nine cubes, then generate sentences or scenes from what's revealed, ideally linking a story together from all the upturned images; a suggested prompt is "once upon a time." Story Cube versions feature actions, voyages, and specialized characters (like Batman), and are recommended for ages 6 and up. The best part? Winning isn't everything! The goal is to think fast, be creative, and avoid dwelling on perfect ideas; there are no wrong answers!

3. APPLES TO APPLES JUNIOR

Designed for ages 9 and up, this creative combination game encourages kids to talk their way to the top! With a whopping 576-card deck, all players begin by receiving an equal number of Red Apple cards, which feature a person, place, thing, or event (like GYMNASTICS or GETTING A HAIRCUT). Individuals take turns being the judge, who will read aloud a Green Apple card that states a description of a person, place, thing, or event (like CRUNCHY or MAGICAL). Players choose one of their own Red Apple cards they believe best corresponds with the Green Apple card, and tries to convince the judge it fits! Whoever's Red Apple card is chosen wins that round, and the first player to dominate four rounds, wins! The objective (aside from silliness) is to expand vocabulary; become more familiar with nouns, adjectives, and synonyms; and hone quick-thinking skills.

4. WORD ON THE STREET JUNIOR

Looking to develop vocabulary with a focus on teamwork? Intended for a younger demographic, Word on the Street Junior is recommended for ages 8 and up. To play, every player helps line up the 26 alphabet tiles onto the board's center spaces, then divides themselves into two teams. Team 1 begins by picking a category card (like A RED FOOD) and Team 2 flips over the 30-second timer; Team 1 has half a minute to choose the best answer/word (like TOMATO), then works as a unit to move corresponding tiles to their "side of the street." Now, Team 2 picks a new category card and has 30 seconds to choose the best response for moving tiles toward their side, ideally with a word including letters from Team 1's side to be "stolen." The first team to shimmy eight tiles off their side of the board, wins. Triple- or quadruple-letter words (like BUBBLE or REFEREE) move tiles to your team's side quicker! Having a parent or adult present helps to ensure words are spelled correctly and rules understood!

5. BANANAGRAMS

Available in several editionsincluding My First Bananagrams (ages 4 and up) and Classic Bananagrams (ages 7 and up)—this game challenges kids to reconfigure letters with an emphasis on proper spelling. To play the original version, 144 tiles (or THE BUNCH) are placed facedown on a table. Each player takes between 11-21 tiles, depending on how many people are playing. One person says "SPLIT!" and players flip over their own tiles and intersect letters to form a personal horizontal and vertical grid of words. When a player has used his or her last tile, they yell "PEEL!" and all players grab a new one from THE BUNCH. Don't like a letter in your lot? Say "DUMP!" at any time and exchange it for three new tiles. When the amount of letters in THE BUNCH is less than the amount of players, the first person to use all his or her own tiles yells "BANANAS!" and wins. Monkeying around never felt so educational!

Tips and Notes:

  • All links are to official brand sites, so scope out local or Canadian shops for availability and pricing.
  • Check your library's collection as an alternative to buying or a trial run before purchasing!
  • Invest in a holder for smaller hands or those who need extra help clutching cards, like Gamewright's Original Little Hands Playing Card Holder.

SpellRead loves word games, too! Students' card packs, which use pseudo-words to reinforce sounds, include either pairs to play Go Fish and Memory, or are perfect for the program's own beloved activities: Slam and Secret Seven!

Eager to learn more?

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Three Reasons Readers Rush

By Brittany Curran on Fri, Oct 19, 2018 @ 01:51 PM

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In well-informed educational settings, teachers and students take turns reading aloud from a carefully chosen book while others silently follow along. New vocabulary is introduced and discussed, allowing students to focus on comprehending and engaging with text. The teacher models phrasing, fluency, and maintains a consistent, positive approach to error detection and correction. Pace is also an incredibly important variable.

So, what's the rush?

Consider this comparison: SpellRead's program features speed-read packs with pseudo words and syllables reflecting vowels and consonants of a student's current lesson. For these packs, time and accuracy are critical and one cannot "beat" a pack without both. Ultimately, however, accuracy trumps speed; students won't move on to the next pack with a quick time but several errors.

Reading an article, book, or story follows the same suit: a faster tempo can be positive as long as the reader hasn't sacrificed correctness or comprehension.

Here are three reasons why a student might feel compelled to hurry, and tips to help slow down the process!

halifax learning spellread reading

REASON #1: PRESSURE

The pressure to perform perfectly or read quickly can weigh heavy on a child, whether this personal push comes from a feeling of inadequacy ("the other students are faster"), an external pressure ("I think my Mom/Dad/teacher wants me to be quicker), or a learning challenge (dyslexia, etc.). The fear of failure could be intimidating enough that students charge through pages, skipping words, lines, and concepts, without the ability to properly absorb the text.

TIPS:

  • Remind your child or student that they are supported and encouraged! You want them to feel positive about reading, not dispirited.
  • Mix up content. Alternate longer reading tasks (e.g. chapter books or assigned homework) with fun, shorter text. Browse and download articles from Newsela, which offers a variety of topics and subscription options for a range of reading levels.
  • Play a word board game, like Scrabble Junior, pairing your child or student with someone older or more advanced.

REASON #2: BOREDOM

The Owl Teacher suggests that a text's level or theme could cause haste. "Is your student rushing through the work because he is challenged by it or bored with it? Some students, such as [those] with ADHD, rush because the thoughts move so quickly in their mind that they need to put down their answer before they lose their train of thought." Furthermore, students may zip through text because it feels "too easy" or they find the subject matter uninteresting.

TIPS:

  • For extracurricular reading, choose captivating material tailored to the child's interests. In life, they won't always get to read what they want, but find openings for compromise. If they require a more advanced text, pick a story highlighting a favourite thinglike hockey, Halloween, or hippopotami! Just be mindful of the balance between challenging and tough.
  • If their age-level books feel too strenuous, scale back a bit so they conquer "easier" text, which could improve confidence, sight word automaticity, and reinforce fundamental skills.

REASON #3: "WINNING"

For many readers (adults included!), it's tempting to hurry through text and leap to the final pages, itching to learn how it ends. Speed certainly allows us to finish faster, but at what cost? The Owl Teacher explains that an individual may want "to feel smart... and by being the first one done, that helps accomplish that for him." In the classic fable, The Tortoise and the Hare, pace becomes paramount, and we learn that moving slowly but steadily leads to success.

TIPS: 

  • Lead by example. Take turns reading paragraphs or pages, and maintain a reasonable reading speed so they emulate your pace.
  • Add an action where you both stop reading at unknown or longer (multisyllabic) words to analyze sounds; this causes readers to pause and contemplate.
  • Write these words on a separate piece of colourful stationery, which will become the book's running vocabulary list. At the end of reading time, you can look up meanings together online or in a physical dictionary!

Reading should be a marathon, not a sprint. A child or student will get the most out of literature when they incorporate time, tools, and techniques to truly and fully understand text. Your bookworm should inch along at his or her most productive speed, so trust the turtle: precision and perseverance matter more than urgency.

••

At Halifax Learning, we use the Gray Oral Reading TestFifth Edition (GORT5) measure reading fluency and reading comprehension.

GORT–5 is one of the most widely used measures of oral reading fluency and comprehension in the United States. The GORT–5 has two equivalent forms: Form A and Form B. Each form contains 16 developmentally sequenced reading passages with five comprehension questions each. —Pearson

It doesn't take an expert in reading instruction to predict rushing as a symptom of a struggling reader. It does require expertise to remediate the systemic effects of poor reading instruction. SpellRead is a marathon that trains the most important muscle in our bodiesthe brainto complete and win the marathon!

Program Walkthrough

If you or a family member is struggling to discover the love of reading, book a free, no-obligation literacy skills assessment today. In less than 1 hour, you will learn more about how you or a loved one processes language and comprehends text.
Free Assessment

RESOURCES:

Library of Congress Aesop Fables: http://read.gov/aesop/025.html
Newsela: https://newsela.com/
The Owl Teacher: https://theowlteacher.com/
Pearson: https://www.pearsonclinical.ca/en/products/product-master/item-404.html

Topics: reading
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Siblings in Stories!

By Brittany Curran on Mon, Apr 09, 2018 @ 12:25 PM

In the spirit of celebrating siblings, here are 7 books that feature the good, the bad, the serious, and the silliest of sibling relationships. This post was inspired by all the sibling students we have had the pleasure of guiding through the SpellRead program on a path to excellent reading skills. 

 

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1. The Magic Tree House books by Mary Pope Osbourne
In this long-running series (with a whopping 53 titles, including Midnight on the Moon and Carnival at Candlelight), Jack and Annie travel through time and to faraway lands on missions for Morgan le Fay. With the help of their Magic Tree House and Master Librarian cards, this brother-sister duo get into plenty of mischief and mayhemand learn to trust their instincts, information, and each other! 

2. Beezus and Ramona by Beverly Cleary
Oh, Ramona! Always getting into sticky situations! Thank goodness for her sister, Beezus, to keep things under control. This delightful book is an instant classic, portraying an older, protective Beezus who is often left in charge of the rabble-rouser Ramona. But what's the secret to pacifying a kooky sibling?! You'll have to read it and see!   

3. The Berenstain Bears series by Stan & Jan Berenstain
There's no cooler twosome than Brother and Sister Bear—nor a wiser set of parents than Papa and Mama! For over 50 years, Stan and Jan Berenstain have presented this fuzzy family and their daily dilemmas. While Brother Bear may be the eldest sibling, Sister Bear lends a sweet innocence to the stories, and both children learn life's lessons with heavy doses of love and laughter! (Some titles include Trouble with Money, No Girls Allowed and Learn about Strangers.)

4. A Wrinkle in Time by Madeleine L'Engle
In one of the most beloved stories of the 20th century, high schooler Meg Murry and her brother Charles Wallace travel through time (with Meg's friend Calvin, too!) in order to rescue their father from the planet Camazotz. With the help of Mrs. Whatsit, Mrs. Who and Mrs. Which, the three children must diligently stay close-knit and confident on their journey—one filled with twists, turns, evildoers and relationships that stand the test of time.

6. Brothers at Bat: The True Story of an Amazing All-Brother Baseball Team by Audrey Vernick
Based on an incredible real-life account, this book is about the Acerra family's 12 baseball-loving sons—in a clan of 16 children total! Set in the 1930s, the brothers generated an entire baseball team (with lads to spare) and this wonderful book about siblings and sports is filled with support and determination!

7. Little Women by Louise May Alcott
Inarguably one of the most timeless and influential novels in history, Little Women is a story about family, friendship, marriage, and true sisterhood. The book observes the world of the March sisters: the eldest, Meg; 15-year-old Jo; 13-year-old Beth; and 12-year-old Amy. Burdened by poverty—but instructed by their Union chaplain father not to dwellthe girls learn about giving to others and falling in love through life-changing adventures and tribulations.

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A Super SpellRead Success Story!

By Brittany Curran on Wed, Mar 28, 2018 @ 02:38 PM

 

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Efficient reading and writing skills are about more than just grade. Our mission to unlock the learning potential of our students to allow them to pursue their passion, like Girl Guide badges.  Read below to learn more about Rachel's journey to a full Girl Guide sash with Halifax Learning. 

When Rachel began at SpellRead last July, reading and writing were not among her preferred past times. Like many students who walk through our doors, she struggled to find joy in a world of books or writing by hand.

If this sounds familiar, don't wait, contact us today for a free in-depth literacy skills assessment.  There is no obligation to enroll and within one hour you'll have a better understanding of how your child processes and understands text.  We'll also send you a digital copy of the assessment report!

Recently, however, a certain spark has been lit and Rachel's developed a newfound self-assurance!

Her SpellRead instructors and her mom, Terri-Lynn, have all noticed a change in Rachel's energy and dedication to reading and writingespecially when it comes to earning Girl Guide badges.

"The other day, Rachel gathered the pages to do the write-ups on approximately six badges and took them to EXCEL, an after school program," says Terri-Lynn. "It was such a surprise to see her sitting alone working on her write-ups, and she was so happy to read each one to me."

Rachel's homeroom and resource teachers at school have also noticed a difference!
Rachel reading!"They are seeing changes in her as well and the said that the knowledge she's gaining at SpellRead has proven to be very useful," says Terri-Lynn. "They've noticed an increase in her confidence."

SpellRead isn't just about achieving a growth in assessment scores. The program strives to provide a supportive and encouraging environment for students so that they can blossom personally, too!

Way to go, Rachel! We're all so proud of you!

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A New Library!

By Brittany Curran on Thu, Mar 13, 2014 @ 03:24 PM

 

The Halifax Central Library is set to open this year and the buzzboth locally and internationallyis off the charts. Or, shall we say, off the shelves?

Official construction for the HCL started in 2012 but progress is picking up quickly! The architects behind this project are Fowler Bauld & Mitchell, and schmidt hammer lassen. Both firms have blended concepts to create an innovative and sustainable five-story complex with panoramic views of Citadel Hill, Dartmouth and the water. The building is also cloaked in glass—a feature to “bring the outdoors, in." 

The new library will be "A Place for Everyone" to "learn new ideas, share knowledge, network with others, grow and explore." The space also provides a top-of-the-line information hub, which will combine new technology with trusted, traditional library techniques.

Eager to know what's planned for each level? Here's the breakdown:

  • The 1st floor is the building's main entrance for "Customer Services" and "Holds/Pickups." Also on this level is bestsellers, newspapers, magazines, and the highly-anticipated Paul O'Regan Hall for performances and programs!

  • Right up the sculptural staircase is the 2nd level, a space designed for children, teens and families. A Media Room and Book Tree are among this floor's extremely modern and cool aspects.

  • The 3rd floor is devoted to adult learning and certainly pays homage to our province's heritage! A First Nations Circle and a section on languages stand out as this level's top features.

  • The 4th floor is a jam-packed spot! Aside from the main reference library as well as adult non-fiction, this level features a nod to our country's war history with a memorial and books of remembrance.

  • Finally, the 5th floor! Deemed as "Halifax's Living Room," this level features a café, rooftop terrace, and a vast fiction collection! 

With amenities such as WiFi, an atrium creating natural light, and the coziest of reading corners, the Halifax Central Library is sure to be a communal, comfortable, inspiring and educational place for locals and tourists alike.

Halifax is known for being a historic metropolis. Here’s hoping the HCL makes its mark on the county's literary culture—and creates a new kind of beautiful history for our coastal city!

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Topics: local
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